2006/Dec/07

Adjective Clause.

This is the house that jact built.

= principal clause(main) = adjective clause

that jact built เป็น dependent clause ชนิด adjective clause เพราะทำหน้าที่ adjective ขยายคำนามใน main clause ซึ่งอยู่ติดกันนั่นคือ the house Adjective clause จะขึ้นต้นด้วย "relative" เช่น

who, whom, whose, which, that, where etc. ทำหน้าที่เชื่อมระหว่าง clause

Who 1. แทนคน

2. Subject

เชื่อมประโยค

I met a boy. That boy knows you.

1. คนเมื่อเปลี่ยนเป็น adj. clause จะใช้ who แทน that boy

2. Subject

สรุปโครงสร้าง who + verb

Whom 1. แทนคน

2. object

เชื่อมประโยค

1. I met the boy. You know him. (1. คน 2. object ของ verb เมื่อเปลี่ยนเป็น adj. clause จะใช้ whom แทน him)

2. That girl is diligent. I went to speak to her. (Object ของ preposition "to"จะใช้ whom แทน her)

สรุปโครงสร้าง Whom + subject + verb

Whom + subject + verb + ----- + preposition

หมายเหตุ

1. สามารถ "whom" ได้

2. สามารถย้าย "preposition" ไว้หน้า relative ได้

I met the boy you know.

That girl I want to speak to is diligent.

That girl to whom I want to speak is diligent.

Whose 1. แสดงความเป็นเจ้าของ

2. เป็นทั้ง Subject และ Object

เชื่อมประโยค

1. The girl comes from Ubot. Her hair is dark and long.

1. แสดงความเป็นเจ้าของว่าเป็นของ "ผม"ของผู้หญิง

2. Her hair เป็น subject

เมื่อเปลี่ยนเป็น adj. clause จะใช้ whose แทน her

The girl whose hair is dark and long comes from Ubol.

สรุปโครงสร้าง Whose + noun + verb

2. The man is handsome. We stayed at his house.

1. แสดงความเป็นเจ้าของว่าเป็น "บ้าน" ของผู้ชาย

2. his house เป็น Object

The man whose house we stayed at is handsome.

สรุปโครงสร้าง Whose + noun + Subject + verb

Which 1. แทนสัตว์ และสิ่งของ

2. เป็นทั้ง Subject และ Object

เชื่อมประโยค

1. The dog is named Dick. It is barking at the cat.

1. สัตว์

2. Subject

เมื่อเปลี่ยนเป็น adj. clause จะใช้ which แทน it

The dog which is barking at the cat is named Dick.

สรุปโครงสร้าง Which + Subject + Verb

Which + Subject + Verb + .... + preposition

หมายเหตุ

1. สามารถละ "which" ซึ่งเป็น object ได้

2. สามารถย้าย "preposition" ไว้หน้า relative ได้

The book I left on the table is very interesting.

The palace the king lives in is very large.

The palace in which the king lives is very large.

that 1. แทนคน สัตว์ สิ่งของ

2. เป็นทั้ง Subject และ Object

สรุปใช้แทน who, whom และ which

main clause (independent clause) และ subordinate clause (dependent clause) โดย subordinate clause แบ่งเป็น ๓ ประเภท ได้แก่ adjective clause (relative clause), noun clause และ adverb clause 

จะเห็นว่าคำอธิบาย complex sentence เข้าใจง่ายกว่าคำอธิบายสังกรประโยค แต่มีที่ ไม่ได้ศึกษาภาษาอังกฤษอาจจะสงสัย จึงขออธิบายเปรียบเทียบกับภาษาไทย ดังนี้

๑. Noun clause (นามานุประโยค) คือประโยคย่อยที่ทำหน้าที่คล้ายกับนาม คือ เป็นบทประธาน, บทกรรม หรือบทขยาย ก็ได้ เช่น

What you said is true. (เป็นบทประธาน)

ฉันเห็นคนข้ามถนน (เป็นบทกรรม)

๒. Adjective clause หรือ Relative clause (คุณานุประโยค) คือ ประโยคย่อยที่ทำหน้าที่ขยายนาม, สรรพนาม และใช้ประพันธ์สรรพนาม relative pronoun (ที่, ซึ่ง, อัน, ผู้, who, which, that,??..) เป็นตัวเชื่อม เช่น

The girl who came late is my student. Who came late ขยาย the girl

ฉันชอบบ้านที่อยู่บนเนิน

ที่อยู่บนเนิน ขยายบ้าน

๓. Adverb clause (วิเศษณานุประโยค) คือ ประโยคย่อยที่ทำหน้าที่ขยายคำกริยาหรือ คำวิเศษณ์

หรืออาจอธิบายได้ว่า Adverb clause เป็นประโยคย่อมที่ขึ้นต้นด้วยคำสันธาน ชนิด subordinate conjunction (เป็นคำสันธานที่ใช้เชื่อมประโยคย่อยเข้ากับประโยคหลัก ส่วนคำสันธานที่ใช้ในประโยคความรวม เรียกว่า coordinating conjunction)

คำสันธานชนิด subordinate conjunction ทำหน้าที่ต่าง ๆ เช่น

๑. บอกเวลา ได้แก่ before, after, when, while,??..

๒. บอกลักษณะ ได้แก่ as if, as though,???

๓. บอกการเปรียบเทียบ ได้แก่ as??as

๔. บอกวัตถุประสงค์ ได้แก่ so that, in order that,??..

๕. บอกสถานที่ ได้แก่ where, wherever,???.

๖. บอกความขัดแย้ง ได้แก่ though, even if,???.

๗. บอกเงื่อนไข ได้แก่ If, provided, unless,???.

ตัวอย่างเช่น

If it rains we will stay indoors.

I will go when I have finished my homework.

I ate as fast as I could.

ประโยค complex sentence ถ้านำมาใช้อธิบายประโยคความซ้อนในภาษาไทย นักเรียนอาจจะเข้าใจได้ง่ายกว่า การที่จะอธิบายจากภาษาไทยโดยตรง นี่หมายถึงว่านักเรียนควรจะมีความรู้ภาษาอังกฤษพอสมควร

จากที่อธิบายเปรียบเทียบมาทั้งหมดนี้ แสดงให้เห็นอย่างชัดเจน ถึงความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างไวยากรณ์ไทยกับไวยากรณ์อังกฤษ

RELATIVE CLAUSES

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved.

Example:
Elephants who marry mice are very unusual.
In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear that we are only talking the ones who marry mice.

Punctuation
Commas are not used in defining relative clauses.

Relative pronouns
The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:

Person

Thing

Place

Time

Reason

Subject

who/that

which/that

Object

who/whom/that/ø

which/that/ø

where

when

why

Possessive

whose

whose

Notes:

1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun.

This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence:

The woman

who/that

spoke at the meeting

was very knowledgeable.

Noun, subject of
main clause

relative pronoun referring to 'the woman', subject of 'spoke'

verb + rest of relative clause

verb + rest of main clause

2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common in spoken English.

3. The relative pronoun can be omitted (ø) when it is the object of the clause:

The mouse that the elephant loved was very beautiful.
OR The mouse the elephant loved was very beautiful.

Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more common in spoken English.

The mouse

that/ø

the elephant loved

was very beautiful.

Noun, subject of main clause

relative pronoun, referring to 'the mouse, object of 'loved'

verb + rest of relative clause

verb + rest of main clause.

(You can usually decide whether a relative pronoun is an object because it is normally followed by another subject + verb.)

4. Whose is used for things as well as for people.

Examples:
The man whose car was stolen.
A tree whose leaves have fallen.

5. Whom is very formal and is only used in written English. You can use who/that, or omit the pronoun completely :

The doctor whom/who/that/ø I was hoping to see wasn't on duty.

6. That normally follows words like something, anything, everything, nothing, all, and superlatives.

Examples:

  • There's something that you should know.

  • It was the best film that I've ever seen.

Examples:

  • A clown is someone who makes you laugh.

  • An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries.

  • The plums that were in the fridge were delicious. I have eaten them.

  • Where are the plums (that) I put in the fridge?

  • Has anyone seen the book I was reading?

  • Nothing that anyone does can replace my lost bag.

  • Let's go to a country where the sun always shines.

  • They live in the house whose roof is full of holes.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

The information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more about someone or something, but it does not help us to identify them or it.
Compare:

1. Elephants that love mice are very unusual. (This tells us which elephants we are talking about).

2. Elephants, which are large and grey, can sometimes be found in zoos. (This gives us some extra information about elephants - we are talking about all elephants, not just one type or group).

3. John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. (We know who John's mother is, and he only has one. The important information is the number of grandchildren, but the fact that she lives in Scotland might be followed with the words "by the way" - it is additional information).

Punctuation
Non-defining relative clauses are always separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. The commas have a similar function to brackets:
My friend John has just written a best-selling novel. (He went to the same school as me) > My friend John, who went to the same school as me, has just written a best-selling novel.

Relative pronouns in non-defining clauses

Person

Thing

Place

Subject

who

which

Object

who/whom 

which

where 

Possessive

whose

Notes:

1. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use that instead of who, whom or which.

2. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun, even when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause:
He gave me the letter, which was in a blue envelope.
He gave me the letter, which I read immediately

3. The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the clause, e.g. This is Stratford-on-Avon, which you have all heard about.

This pattern is often used in spoken English, but in written or formal English you can also put the preposition before the pronoun: e.g. Stratford-on-Avon, about which many people have written is Shakespeares birthplace.

4. Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of, many of + relative pronoun:

Person

Thing

all of

+ whom

+ which

any of

+ whom

+ which

(a) few of

+ whom

+ which

both of

+ whom

+ which

each of

+ whom

+ which

either of

+ whom

+ which

half of

+ whom

+ which

many of

+ whom

+ which

most of

+ whom

+ which

much of

+ whom

+ which

none of

+ whom

+ which

one of

+ whom

+ which

two of etc 

+ whom

+ which

Examples:

a. There were a lot of people at the party, many of whom I had known for years.

b. He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken.

5. The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause, can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence, rather than to just one word.

a. Chris did really well in his exams, which was a big surprise. (= the fact that he did well in his exams was a big surprise).

b. An elephant and a mouse fell in love, which is most unusual. (= the fact that they fell in love is unusual).

Examples:

a. My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England.
b. I spoke to Fred, who explained the problem.
c. The elephant looked at the tree, under which she had often sat.
d. We stopped at the museum, which wed never been into.
e. Shes studying maths, which many people hate.
f. Ive just met Susan, whose husband works in London.
g. He had thousands of books, most of which he had read.

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